Logistics costs consist of transportation, storage, inventory, packaging, stevedoring (loading and unloading), and administration costs. Logistics costs are associated with GDP, oil price change, and other economic trends at the national level. As such estimating the national logistics costs are complicated and there are considerable risks in reporting and predicting these costs.
The estimation of national logistics costs is one of the major tasks that the Korea Transport Institute (KOTI) has been conducting since 1995. As the country's logistics costs are often used for either beginning a construction project or establishment of policies, logistics costs should be estimated and reported to support those decisions as accurate as possible on a regular basis.
However, reported logistics costs for a given year reflect costs from two years prior. The logistics costs reported in 2017, for example, is the one in 2015 due to the delay of several input data. There is also doubt in the level of accuracy of the costs.
This study aims to enhance the methodology used to estimate the national logistics costs, increase the accuracy of the costs estimation, and attempt to reduce the gap between estimated year and reported year. The methodological framework is the same as previous reports published every year. The major contribution of this study is to introduce new input data, which is more accurate and timely in the analysis.
National logistics costs in Korea amounted to 168.03 trillion won for the year 2015. This figure accounted for 10.74% of GDP. The value-added of national logistics activities was 102.85 trillion won and the unit-logistics costs and the unit-transportation costs were 78,215 won/ton and 625 won/ton-km, respectively.
There are several issues worthy of consideration in this analysis. The growth in freight transportation costs was significantly influenced by the increase of global oil prices and the labor cost. The growth rates in the value-added national logistics activities and the national logistics costs in 2015 have grown 2.06% and 2.68% in terms of the real price since 2001, respectively. The growth rates in the unit-logistics costs and the unit-transportation costs have consistently increased 1.00% and 1.01% since 2001, respectively.
In this study, firstly, according to the toll road method and the private investment law, the private business, which is a nonprofit management office, set up the right to manage the toll roads to collect the toll roads and the characteristics of each concession agreement, The results of the project are as follows.
Through this, it is possible to grasp the insufficiently supervised management of the private road company, and to refer to cases of business organizations and supervisory organizations in the domestic transportation sector, legislative cases for establishing management organizations for supervision of business organizations in other fields, And presented the scenario for each type of supervisory organization. Next, after analyzing the pros and cons of each scenario and recommending the most appropriate alternative, it recommended the establishment of the supervisory body and the optimal option for the representative organization, funding for establishment and operation.
This study is based on the review of some amendments to the toll road law, which was initiated by Representative Jeon Hyun-hee of [Appendix] on August 14, 2017. However, In order to minimize the legal risk, the company appointed five lawyers as consultants for the establishment and financing of the project.
In ths study, we investigated and analyzed the curvature of long distance city bus routes operating in metropolitan areas, and examined ways to improve the curvature of the routes selected.
As a result of the research and analysis of this study, threr are a large number of long distance city bus routes width high degree of curvature of the route. In practice, however, the route of the vus lines has not been changed well because the users are reluctant to change it and complain a lot and bus company is trying to get passengers above the proper level.
However, improving the curvature of long distance city bus routes will not only enhance the convenience of users, but will also help to improve the operation efficiency of wide=area bus carriers. It is expected that the results of the research and analysis of this study can be used as a basic data for the improvement of the bend of the long distance city bus routes when the local government changes the service route by actual route.
Drones are coming into our normal life in a variety of purposes and types while it have been used for military purposes in past decades. The drones are expected to dramatically increase in the future, laws and regulations should be taken into consideration for the management of unmanned aerial vehicles (called ‘drones’). The Korea’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport has selected the drone industry as one of the seven major rising industrial areas, and has established a roadmap (‘17-’26) to support the drone industry in terms of law and regulations. Following this stream, this study aims to establish legal amendments for the management of drones, ultimately in order to effectively manage drones and support the economic growth through drones.
In principal, regulations for safety management and deregulation for fostering industries may have trade-offs. In order to minimize the trade-offs, this study provided countermeasures to enforce the registration of drones and to alleviate the authorization of drone’s navigation. In other words, this study recommended to lower the drone’s weight threshold of registration, in order to enlarge the scope of drones to be mandatorily registered. On the other hand, this study recommended a reduced procedure of navigation approval, in order to facilitate drone’s uses. With these two basic directions in mind, this study provided legal amendments by seven legal areas: 1) definition and categorization, 2) registration, 3) flight operations, 4) driver license and training, 5) liability and insurance, 6) privacy protection, and 7) enforcement and accident investigation. In addition, to facilitate the legal amendment process, this study proposed a step-by-step implementation approach enabling the current laws and regulations to be revised in the beginning and independent laws and regulations to be legislated afterward.
Estimation methodologies were developed for traffic accident costs in Korea. Road traffic accident costs were based on data from the integrated road traffic database provided by the Road Traffic Authority of Korea.
This study estimates the social costs of traffic accidents in 2015 using the gross lost output approach. This approach is considered to be the most suitable method for the economic environment of Korea. Accident costs consist of future income loss, medical costs, property damage costs, related administration costs, and PGS (pain, grief and suffering) of the victims. The Korea Transport Institute has been measuring the annual road accident costs of Korea since 1995. In 2003, it began to estimate total multimodal accident costs, including those from the rail, marine and aviation sectors.
A total of 1,144,157 accidents were reported in 2015, resulting in 4,750 deaths and 1,809,857 injuries included in all transportation modes. The resulting total accident costs totalled 49.5 trillion won, equivalent to approximately 3.17% of Korea’s 2015 GDP.
Roadway accident costs amounted to 49.2 trillion won. These costs accounted for nearly the entirety of total transportation accident costs. The accident costs of marine, rail and aviation modes were 192.7 billion won, 28.3 billion won and 42.3 billion won, respectively. Accident costs per accident showed that aviation, railway, marine and road accidents cost 3.5 billion won, 227.4 million won, 91.7 million won, and 35.7 million won respectively.
Psychological costs, which are expressed as a ratio of involvement in total compensations, were not influenced by varying judgment contexts, specifically change in perspective from victim to culprit or vice versa. However, subjective expectations of total compensations, which by the definition of willingness to pay depends on one’s perspective, were highly contingent upon the amount a victim is guaranteed against damage or loss.
The psychological unit cost per individual amounted to 286.6 million won for fatality, 75.1 million won for serious injury, and 6.3 million won for slight injury. The psychological costs of road, rail, marine and aviation modes were 23.4 trillion won, 10.3 billion won, 48.9 billion won, 0.2 billion won, respectively.